Sometime in 2001, a New England firm that later became a client decided to outsource all of its software development to India. It seemed like an excellent idea at the time, as Indian intellectual property wage rates were roughly one-tenth of their U. S. counterparts. But the project went poorly: U.S.-based employees struggled to manage programmers located halfway around the world, and much of the work coming back from India didn’t meet the standards of quality expected by the U. S. firm. While the industry has improved, this is still a common problem today. How can a team located in a different culture, a different business environment, and surrounded by completely different ideas regarding acceptable customer service, adequately meet the quality demands of a foreign customer?
There’s a solution?
Before exploring a solution that solves the complex cultural and logistic issues of International projects, let’s take a quick look at the elements of a typical project. We can start by using a guide such as the Project Management Institute’s PMBOK®, or Project Management Body of Knowledge. The PMBOK quite effectively lays out much of the scope a project manager needs to be prepared to handle.
According to the PMBOK, every project has five phases in common:
- Monitoring and Controlling.
During each of these phases, the project manager’s objective is to balance the competing constraints of scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, and risk.
These constraints are, in and of themselves, often daunting. Add in the human element and often inevitable business politics, and projects can become difficult exercises in communication, motivation, and human psychology. In fact, the PMBOK spends a good bit of time discussing key areas where these factors play a major role. Stakeholder involvement, communication plans, getting an unbiased statement of work or progress, managing risks, and managing subcontracts — just to get the list started — are critical to achieving success on any project.
All of these factors combine to create a web of constraints that push and pull at the fabric of a project, often so much that the fabric doesn’t survive intact. For example, stakeholders may not have the project’s best interests at heart or may simply be uninterested in their day-to-day responsibilities. Budget constraints may require the project manager to make difficult decisions that affect the team, or the objectives of the project. Subcontracts are, by the very nature of business, first and foremost motivated by their own fiscal health and profit, not necessarily your best interests.
This is the landscape a project manager steps into on a daily basis. The larger an endeavor, the more significant these challenges become — even when the entire project is still in a single building.
International project problems… Solved
Now, expand the dynamics of the project to a global effort, involving International team members, foreign partners, and vendors that you seldom meet in a face to face setting. In fact, many global projects are “communications deprived,” due to geographic challenges. A global organization can often have project members spread across as many as 15 time zones. While advances in technology have led to tremendous strides in delivering reliable communication, teleconferencing or video conferencing a few times a week, in the early or late hours of day, doesn’t compare to frequent, in-person communication. Teams operate in a vacuum much of their day, making decisions they would otherwise not make on their own.
Think back to the New England based firm: All of these factors contributed to quality problems, as the team in India tried to deliver what they believed the client wanted, but failed. Lack of communication, cultural misunderstands, and business context that we take for granted was missing — and the project failed.
This is the vacuum into which Rational Scrum was created. Project management methodologies today don’t address the complex issues imposed by multicultural teams, working in widely distributed, International contexts. That’s what Rational Scrum is all about: Finding solutions for International project problems. Fuel for this blog comes from a few different sources, including my book Successfully Managing International Projects. I hope you’ll find the contents interesting!